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The Occidental Quarterly Vol 4 No 3

The Bell Curve: An Assessment After 10 Years

Don I. Templer


The research and theoretical literature in the ten years after the publication of The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray is extremely supportive of all of the inferences of the authors. The literature provides unequivocal evidence that intelligence is a biologically based variable and correlates with brain size and skin color. Intelligence is related to academic discipline (e.g., physics students are more intelligent than education students). Black students go into the least intellectually demanding disciplines and East Asian students seek out the most intellectually demanding occupations. The research literature is louder and clearer in showing that black brains tend to be smaller than the brains of East Asians and whites. It is suggested that many persons of lower intelligence feel jealousy and anger and express aggression toward individuals who have higher IQs. It is inferred that Rushton's unifying theory of racial differences is the equivalent of the unification of diverse concepts of physics by Einstein's theory of relativity.

The Bell Curve , published in the fall of 1994 and the subject of extensive criticism, is widely read and well known for several reasons:

First, the book is comprehensive and contains a wealth of information. Second, The Bell Curve shows that intelligence is important in determining an array of successes and failures in life in a variety of realms. As I say to my students, intelligence means much more than facility in reading, writing, and arithmetic. Our level of intelligence pervades every aspect of our behavior and our experience.

Third, The Bell Curve shows that IQ is more important than the socioeconomic status of one's family of origin in predicting success and failure. This shows that IQ tests are not glorified achievement tests devised by those with wealth and power in order to keep the downtrodden in their place.

Fourth, Herrnstein and Murray had the courage to write what is scientifically valid rather than what is politically correct. They displayed the courage to tell the truth about IQ and race. The evidence that they and other scholars use in inferring that on average blacks tend not to be as well endowed genetically in intelligence as whites is overwhelming. It is one of the most conclusively established (albeit not accepted by all psychologists) generalizations in the field of psychology. If the biological hypothesis that explains the black-white gap in intelligence is a myth, then Pavlov's dog never salivated, and B. F. Skinner’s pigeons never pressed a bar and were never rewarded with food. There are many psychologists who prefer not to accept that many unsuccessful individuals are unsuccessful because they are intellectually dull.

I was recently on a dissertation committee in which the student intended to predict success in a program to get people off of welfare. I suggested that an IQ test be used. The chair of the dissertation committee, a very talented psychologist and nice person, rejected my idea as "inflammatory". My worthy colleague is not alone in her attitude. The idea of relating IQ to success in life rubs quite a few psychologists the wrong way. What are some of the specific findings of The Bell Curve? More intelligent people have higher-level jobs. Within any profession or job category, more intelligent persons are more successful.

"An IQ score is a better predictor of job productivity than a job interview, reference checks, or a college transcript." The amount of education a person receives is correlated more highly with IQ than with the socioeconomic status of his or her parents. Low IQ is a stronger predictor of poverty than the socioeconomic status of one's family of origin. Graduation from high school is related more highly to IQ than to family socioeconomic status. Intelligence predicts unemployment better than level of education and socioeconomic background. Nine out of ten men who become physically disabled are in the bottom quartile of IQ distribution. Herrnstein and Murray suggested that this is a function of low-IQ men being more accident prone.

Among white women on welfare, seventy-five percent come from the bottom quartile of intelligence and five percent from the top quartile. Low IQ predicts criminality better than does socioeconomic status. The average black person has a higher IQ than only sixteen percent of white persons. The black-white IQ discrepancies are large even when socioeconomic status is controlled for. In revisiting the ten-year span since the publication of The Bell Curve, the present article highlights some of the more important findings that corroborate Herrnstein and Murray's thesis rather than discussing every relevant study published in the last decade. Such a review would be boring and merely confirm the research of earlier decades. No new inferences would be permitted. Instead the focus of this piece centers on major research/theoretical thrusts that have been published or presented since the 1994 book. These include:

(a) the evolutional/life history biological theory of racial differences of J. Philippe Rushton,

(b) Rushton's critique of Stephen Jay Gould's The Mismeasure of Man

(c) Richard Lynn and Tatu Vanhanen's IQ and the Wealth of Nations, which provides the average IQ of nations worldwide,

(d) the research relating IQ to skin color,

(e) the huge black-white disparities at the extreme upper levels of IQ, and

(f) the stratification of academic fields as a function of intelligence.

Rushton's Race, Evolution, and Behavior (1995, 2000) provides a brilliant evolutionary and life history–based theory that comprehensively explains racial differences in intelligence and behavior. Richard Lynn, in one sentence, described the creativity and importance of Rushton's work. Lynn said, "Should, if there is any justice, receive a Nobel prize." Rushton pointed out that blacks and Orientals (or at least East Asians—Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans) are the opposite on a number of biological, psychological, and social characteristics. Whites have an intermediate position. Blacks tend to have the smallest brain size, lowest intelligence, the fastest maturational rate, the greatest aggressiveness and impulsivity, the most unstable social organization, the highest frequency of sexual behavior, and the highest reproductive rate.

Chart 1, taken from Rushton (2000), provides a more detailed account of these racial differences.


Rushton applied the r vs. K reproductive strategy model that has been used with animals to humans and called it the "Differential K Theory." The more intelligent species exhibit the K strategy, in which they reproduce less and provide more care for their offspring. The less intelligent species reproduce more and provide less care for their offspring. Rabbits have twelve offspring a year in contrast to the great apes, who have one offspring every five years. Rushton contends that Orientals and whites have a more K reproductive strategy than blacks. Rushton speculated that brain size and testosterone may be controller variables on the r-K continuum.

Humans originated in Africa. About 100,000 years ago there was a migration out of Africa with a differentiation between Africans and non-Africans. The next differentiation was between non-Africans who migrated to Europe (white) and those who migrated to northeast Asia (Orientals). Rushton contends that the greater difficulty in coping with colder climates (e.g., obtaining food and shelter and surviving winters) led to the evolution of greater brain size and intelligence in whites and Orientals.

The beauty of Rushton's theory is twofold: (a) It provides a biological foundation for the understanding of racial differences around the world, and (b) it integrates an array of biological, psychological, and social differences among the three major races of the world (Rushton, 1997). With a genetically based foundation, it becomes unparsimonious to have a different psychosocial explanation for every asset, every problem, and every event that involves one or more of these races. Most, if not all, of these psychosocial explanations pertaining to black people have one common denominator—that the problems of blacks are caused by the malevolence of whites. The low IQ, impulsivity, aggressiveness, high sex drive, high rate of rape, high rate of AIDS, lower income, high welfare rate, high blood pressure, and low life expectancy are said by some naive psychologists to have psychosocial explanations (e.g., the legacy

of slavery). Such explanations may appear to have an element of plausibility when one takes a narrow perspective with respect to location and time. However, when one considers that most of these problems have existed for centuries and around the world, the psychosocial explanations seem less parsimonious.

To deny genetically based behavioral differences between races is as absurd as denying genetically based behavioral differences among various breeds of dogs. It may be true that some people train their pit bulls, Dobermans, and rottweilers to be aggressive. However, why do they choose these breeds rather than golden retrievers, cocker spaniels, or Irish setters? There is a reason why people choose beagles and bassets to hunt rabbits. There is a reason why greyhounds and whippets are used for racing. Rushton’s theory is the supreme theory for explaining racial differences. Rushton’s theory makes some people angry because they do not want to hear the truth. The unifying theory regarding racial differences of Rushton is the equivalent of Einstein’s unification of physics by the theory of relativity.

Rushton’s Critique of Gould’s The Mismeasure of Man

Rushton (1997) very effectively, logically, and empirically decimated both the first (Gould, 1981) and the second (Gould, 1996) editions of The Mismeasure of Man. This demolition is very much justified because both editions are pitiful and deplorable semblances of scholarship. If The Mismeasure of Man had been ignored by psychologists and other scholars, it would merely represent wasted paper. Unfortunately, it has not been ignored, but widely believed and revered. Well over 100,000 copies have been sold, and Gould’s book is used as required reading in many courses. Many psychologists like the book because it is congruent with their political and social biases and reinforces what they want to believe. They prefer to read pseudoscience that justifies their own preconceived egalitarian beliefs to real science that establishes the firm genetic basis for individual and group differences.

Rushton appropriately stated that

The Mismeasure of Man was, in fact, an ad hominem attack on eminent scholars, past and present, who have scientifically studied race, intelligence, and brain size. Despite the masses of empirical research using state-of-the-art technology, published in highly prestigious journals that refute the obscurantist arguments Gould first served up in 1981, all the chapters of the initial edition have now been unapologetically regurgitated. Gould’s failure not only to conduct any empirical research of his own but to even acknowledge the existence of any or all contradictory data speaks for itself.

Gould, in his first edition, not only denied racial differences in brain size but denied the relationship between brain size and IQ. This is a preposterous position. It is the equivalent of a geographer or an astronomer saying that the earth is flat. Even head size yields a positive, albeit small, correlation with IQ. However, the MRI research of the last fifteen years, both before and after The Bell Curve, conclusively establishes a positive relationship between IQ and brain size. In regard to the omission of this material in the Gould (1996) book, Rushton points out:

I know that Gould is aware of this because my colleagues and I routinely sent him copies as they appeared and asked him what he thought! For the record, let it be known that Gould did not reply to the missives regarding the published scientific data that destroyed the central thesis of his final edition. Further evidence of Gould’s method is the way the 1996 edition deletes the very section of the 1981 section that discussed the brain size–IQ relationship.

In both the 1981 first edition and the 1996 revision, Gould denies the existence of racial differences in brain size. This is even less excusable in the 1996 book because of the impressive MRI evidence. The MRI evidence is consistent with research using brain weight at autopsy, the research of measuring the volume of empty skulls using filler, and the research in which volume is estimated from external head size. On the basis of all such research there is overwhelming evidence that, around the world, persons of European descent have larger brains than do persons of sub-Saharan African descent and that persons of East Asian descent have slightly larger brain sizes than do persons of European descent.

Rushton does a most effective job in refuting Gould’s inferences about sex differences in brain size, social class differences in brain size, and the biological correlates of criminality. The point here is to highlight Rushton’s critique of Gould’s flawed work rather than describe in detail all of Rushton’s refutation of Gould. I merely want to draw attention to Rushton’s article. Hopefully readers will bring it to the attention of their colleagues, students, and friends who have been misinformed by Gould.

Lynn and Vanhanen’s IQ and the Wealth of Nations

One of the greatest contributions to the field of intelligence since The Bell Curve is the book IQ and the Wealth of Nations by Lynn and Vanhanen (2002), who provided the IQ (or estimated IQ on the basis of neighboring countries) of all the countries of the world. They showed that IQ correlated substantially with per capita income, and they inferred that higher intelligence produces greater prosperity. A very interesting and important finding is that the average IQ of the countries of the world is only 84.9. The average IQ of 100 applies primarily to East Asians and Europeans and their descendants throughout the world. Black African countries have average IQs in the 60s and 70s. South Asian countries have average IQs in the low 80s. Arab countries tend to have average IQs in the mid-80s. Southeast Asian countries’ average IQs are around 90. The Latin American countries range from the 70s (for predominantly black countries) to the 90s (for predominantly white countries). It is apparent that generalizations can be made not only for individual countries but also for ethnic groups and for regions of the world.

There are obvious economic and political implications for this great disparity in intelligence around the world. I am not an economist or political scientist and not qualified to make specific and definitive recommendations. Nevertheless, it would appear that there are implications for immigration, investment, foreign aid, and national security. Generally speaking, immigrants from low IQ countries are more likely to be a burden upon taxpayers than are immigrants from high IQ countries. It would be more prudent to invest in high IQ developing countries. For the lowest IQ countries, it would be unrealistic to think their standards of living will be equal to those in Japan or Europe. It may be necessary for the more prosperous countries to indefinitely provide aid to these low IQ countries. An extremely dramatic reduction in AIDS may not be possible in countries in which many men refuse to use condoms and in which having multiple sex partners is very common. Symptom reduction and alleviation of suffering may be more realistic than virtual eradication. The United States should be careful not to step on the toes of giants with high IQs.

IQ and Skin Color

The compilation of average IQs in the countries of the world by Lynn and Vanhanen (2002) enabled Templer and Arikawa (2003) to carry out their research on IQ, temperature, and skin color. The basis of the Templer and Arikawa study was the contentions of Rushton (1995, 2000) and of Lynn (1991) that greater intelligence evolved in colder climates because of the greater difficulty in coping with colder weather. Templer and Arikawa used the variables of average low winter temperature, average high winter temperature, average low summer temperature, average high summer temperature, skin color, and per capita income. Skin color was conceptualized as a multigenerational reflection of climate.

Templer and Arikawa generated and compared two conceptual models. The first is the Necessity Is the Mother of Invention Model, which postulates that the necessity of coping with a cold climate spurs technological innovation, and that the improvements in nutrition, health care, and education that result from economic development raise IQ. The second is the Darwinian Model, which postulates that more intelligent people are more likely to survive in cold climates and that greater intelligence advances technology and raises income. Templer and Arikawa reasoned that if the first model is more viable, IQ should correlate more highly with per capita income than with temperature and skin color. They contended that if the second model is more viable, IQ should correlate more highly with temperature and skin color than with per capita income. The authors only included those 129 countries with primarily indigenous people—those with populations that have persisted since before the voyages of Christopher Columbus.

The highest correlations with IQ were -.92 for skin color, -.71 for mean high winter temperature, -.63 for per capita income, and -.61 for mean low winter temperature. The correlation of IQ with skin color was significantly higher than all of the other correlations with IQ. Thus the bulk of the research support is given to the Darwinian Model, which essentially represents the contention of Rushton and of Lynn. The very high correlation between IQ and skin color provides one of the strongest pieces of evidence to date of an evolutionary process in which colder climates are conducive to the development of higher intelligence. Templer and Arikawa found that genetics plays an important role in the uneven distribution of IQ around the world.

The very high correlation between IQ and skin color is congruent with the fact that throughout much of the world lighter skin color is regarded as a more desirable aesthetic trait. The caste system of the Hindu religion is essentially a stratification based on skin color. In the Hispanic television programs in California, some of which are purportedly made in Mexico for Mexicans, most of the Hispanic persons look predominantly European. Most Hispanics in California are dark-complected people whose appearance reflects their Indian ancestry. When a Mexican child is born one of the first questions frequently asked concerns the color of the skin. Many Filipino women strenuously avoid being out in the sun. Some light-complected African Americans don’t socialize with dark-complected African Americans. A light-complected African-American psychologist told me that when he was growing up his mother said he should marry a woman with "good skin." In fact, research has demonstrated positive, albeit not high, correlations between skin color and IQ in African Americans. An anthropologist recently told me that in all societies studied by anthropologists the ruling class has lighter complexions. The preference for lighter skin probably is rooted in the fact that lighter-skinned people tend to be more successful because this success corresponds to a higher average intelligence.

Some persons may criticize Templer and Arikawa for reporting the high correlation between IQ and skin color. They may say that disclosing this scientific finding may promote prejudice and discrimination based on skin color. However, scientists should not be blamed if unwise or unscrupulous persons misuse their basic research findings. The basic research findings of physicists and chemists have been used both to create marvelous medical interventions and to manufacture devices for less noble purposes.

White/Black Ratios at Extreme Upper End of Bell Curve

Herrnstein and Murray (1994) did a beautiful job of describing the very important practical implications of the standard deviation difference between white and black Americans. Blacks have an average IQ of 85 and a standard deviation of 15. Whites have an average IQ of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. This means that only fourteen percent of blacks have an IQ that is equal to or greater than the average IQ of whites. This explains the lower achievement, the higher percentage of persons on welfare, and the higher percentage of incarcerated blacks. Templer (2004) extended the reasoning of Herrnstein and Murray to the extreme upper portion of the bell curve. The higher the IQ under consideration the greater is the white-to-black ratio. Templer pointed out that sixteen percent of whites but only two percent of blacks have an IQ of 115 or higher. Two percent of whites but only one out of 1,000 black persons have an IQ of 130. One out of 1,000 whites but only one out of 300,000 black persons has an IQ of 145. Templer stated: "The bottom line is that extremely brilliant black persons are almost rare." The denial of this very real disparity in intelligence leads to black men and women being placed in very high positions for which they are intellectually unqualified. Templer said

The highest positions in government, the military, academia, business, industry, science, engineering, and the judicial system should be filled by the brightest people possible. The man or woman who is merely above average in intelligence is more prone than is the brilliant person to being unable to see the trees because of the forest. The exceptionally bright person is better able to assimilate, sort out, and organize a wide array of information and assess the advantages and disadvantages of alternative decisions.

The selection of intellectually underqualified black persons for high level positions is not only racism but is bad for the United States.

Academic Discipline Differentiation As a Function of Intelligence

It has long been rumored in high schools and colleges that some college majors are more demanding than others. Templer, Tomeo, Arikawa, and Williams (2003) ranked the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) Verbal + Quantitative + Analytical scores of students planning to do graduate work in 45 different disciplines. The top 10 disciplines in descending order are physics, material engineering, mathematics, chemical engineering, philosophy, economics, other engineering, computer and information technology, and mechanical engineering. The bottom 10 disciplines in descending order are elementary education, accounting, public administration, education, education administration, special education, student counseling personnel, home economics, social work, and early childhood education.

The mean GREs in physics are 538 Verbal, 717 Quantitative, 648 Analytical, and 1,903 total. The respective mean GREs for early childhood education are 413, 463, 500, and 1,376. When one considers the standard deviations associated with these GRE means, it is apparent that the average early childhood education student would score in the bottom one percent of physics students. There is no way that the hypothetical student could obtain admission to a graduate program in physics. In fact, I would venture to say that a substantial percentage of persons who obtain Ed.D.s and Ph.D.s from the less demanding areas in colleges of education could not obtain a bachelor’s degree in physics.

The main purpose of the study in which Templer et al. (2003) ranked GRE scores was to determine the correlation between Verbal + Performance + Quantitative GRE scores and the ratio of Asians to blacks who earn doctorates in the 45 disciplines under consideration. Asians and blacks were chosen because of overwhelming evidence from around the world that East Asians (Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans) have larger brain size, higher IQs, and faster reaction times on nonacademic complex tasks that correlate with IQ than do black persons. Whites tend to obtain scores that are intermediate but closer to those of Asians.

The highest ratios of Asians to blacks earning doctorates are 18.16 for material engineering, 14.01 for physics, 12.73 for mechanical engineering, 11.81 for mathematics, and 10.69 for computer and information technology. The lowest Asian to black ratios are .11 for education administration, .13 for student counseling personnel, .25 for early childhood education, and .31 for special education. It is apparent that Asians are 164 times more likely than blacks to obtain a doctorate in material engineering rather than education administration. When one considers that there are about four times as many blacks as Asians in the United States, the ratio becomes over six hundred to one.

Herrnstein and Murray (1994) maintained that there is increasing occupational and economic stratification as a function of intelligence. On the basis of the Templer et al. (2003) study, it would appear that there is stratification of academic disciplines on the basis of intelligence. Brighter persons are more likely to study physics, mathematics, engineering, economics, philosophy, and computers. Lesser talented scholars are more apt to study education, social work, and home economics. All bachelor’s degrees, all master’s degrees, and all doctorates are not of equal worth. Black persons tend to go into less demanding fields. This is highly predictable and understandable in view of blacks having lower average IQs. Some persons, blinded by their emotions and their political and social biases, would view the educational achievement of some blacks as refuting the position that, as a group, blacks are genetically less well endowed. Some misguided persons overlook the fact that there are lower admis-sion standards and the fact that there is pressure to graduate some blacks who should not be graduated. I maintain that the nature of the academic fields blacks enter adds to the overwhelming evidence that blacks tend to be less endowed with intelligence.

There appears to be differentiation on the basis of intelligence even within disciplines. Until the late 1960s, almost all clinical psychology doctorates were awarded by major universities. In the last thirty years there has been a proliferation of professional schools that offer the Ph.D., or more often the Psy.D. (Doctor of Psychology), degree in clinical psychology. The standards of admission of these professional schools are lower than those of traditional programs in clinical psychology. The professional schools of psychology acknowledge that they stress research less than do the traditional programs. However, they claim to have better professional training and to produce a superior professional product. The research evidence, however, indicates that they produce an inferior professional product. Their graduates do less well on the national license exam, the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology (EPPP), than do the graduates of traditional programs (Templer & Tomeo, 1998, 2000; Yu et al., 1997). Of the 183 clinical psychology programs in the United States and Canada, the top fifty-nine on the EPPP were all traditional programs, and eighteen of the nineteen lowest scoring programs were professional programs. Furthermore, graduates of professional programs are less likely to obtain a diplomate from the American Board of Professional Psychology, less likely to have been president of a state psychological association, less likely to have been an internship director, and less likely to be a fellow of the American Psychological Association.


The theoretical and research literature in the ten years since The Bell Curve both supports and extends the importance of intelligence stressed in that book. It is now more evident than ever that intelligence is biologically rooted and that it is very important in determining both success in life and disruptive behavior. We now know that the average IQs of countries differ greatly around the world. Technological and economic development in low IQ countries is very much limited. Democratic rule, such as in the United States, Europe, and Japan, may be an unrealistic ideal in low IQ countries. The ratio of blacks to whites at exceptionally high IQ levels is very large, and extremely brilliant blacks are rare. The conflict between affirmative action and having the best person in highly responsible positions is obvious. There is stratification of academic fields on the basis of intelligence. Blacks are overrepresented at the low end of this stratification.

I wish to further extend the work of Herrnstein and Murray by proposing the generalization that average-to-below intelligence guarantees a person a position of obscurity in the history of the world and that above average intelligence provides the potential for making one’s mark in the world—for better or for worse. The contention of Murray and Herrnstein that low intelligence persons commit more crime and cause more social problems cannot be disputed. However, I wish to point out that most of the evil political leaders in the history of the world have been above average in intelligence. Adolf Hitler had sufficient intelligence to greatly improve the economy of Germany. His ideas for the humane treatment of animals were very advanced for his era. If he had not attacked minority groups, attacked other countries, attacked freedom of speech, and terrorized the German people, he would have been regarded as one of the greatest German leaders of all time. Joseph Stalin was able to unite the Soviet citizenry and the Soviet military (which he had weakened by the execution of officers whose loyalty he questioned) to defeat the German army. Saddam Hussein was able to suppress various ethnic and religious factions to create law and order and fear and submission to his repressive dictatorship.

It is apparent that persons who are above average in intelligence have above average capacity for both good and bad. Governor Dukakis, when he was a presidential candidate, stated that his father said to him, "Much has been given to you. Much is expected of you." I believe that the more intelligent people of America and the more intelligent people of the world have an obligation to help and not to exploit or humiliate less intelligent people. On the other hand, the less intelligent people have the same obligation to obey the laws of society (which they often violate) as do the more intelligent people. Those who rank among the less intelligent should be held accountable when they transgress these laws.

I have previously said (Templer, 2004) that much of the anger of blacks toward whites is a function of jealousy of whites’ higher average intelligence levels. I now wish to extend this generalization to jealousy of persons of lower intelligence toward persons of higher intelligence. Just as Karl Marx posited a social class struggle, I posit an intelligence class struggle. Many intellectually dull persons and intellectually average persons are jealous of bright people. And they are angry because they are dull. It is apparent from elementary school who has and who does not have the ability to reach a high- prestige or high-income occupation. Below-average children become friends of the other below-average children, and they direct their anger toward above-average children, toward their teacher, and toward society. A child with an IQ of 130 on average is unlikely to break school windows, talk back to the teacher, or assault other children.

Equalitarian political movements, such as communism, tend to lash out against highly intelligent persons, who are incarcerated, tortured, and killed. A disproportionate number of brilliant persons are born in Siberia. The reason for this phenomenon is that under communism highly intelligent persons were placed in the slave labor camps in Siberia. Pol Pot, leader of the Khmer Rouge, killed about two million people in the Cambodian genocide. Persons with light skin (a sign of higher intelligence) and glasses (a sign of literacy) were placed in slave labor camps and worked from dawn to dusk. They were given one small cup of rice soup, without much rice, per day. In the Rodney King riot in Los Angeles, blacks looted and burned businesses of Koreans. They were angry because the Koreans had the necessary intelligence and work ethic and ability to delay gratification to prosper as successful business people in black neighborhoods. Many of the Korean business owners had much more deprived backgrounds than did the American-born blacks.

Most criminals are below average in intelligence. Violent criminals tend to be even more below average in intelligence than thieves. Bright people need to protect themselves from people who are jealous of them.

I praise the Fresno County sheriff for his willingness to allow law-abiding citizens to carry a concealed weapon. I have a permit to carry a concealed weapon. I would feel bad if I had to kill a person who seriously threatened my life. However, I would not feel guilty The death of a criminal is less unfortunate than the death of an innocent person. Dead people cannot prey on the innocent and burden the taxpayer. Research indicates that whether or not a person becomes a criminal is predicted better by the criminality of biological parents than the criminality of the parents who rear him or her. Dead criminals cannot pass on their inferior genes.

Donald I. Templer is professor of psychology at the California School of Professional Psychology, Alliant International University. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and the American Psychological Society and has received numerous honors for his work in neuropsychological research, psychopathology, personality assessment, and other psychological fields.


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Gould, S. J. (1996). The Mismeasure of Man (2nd ed.). New York: Norton.

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Rushton, J. P. (1995). Race, Evolution and Behavior: A Life History Perspective. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

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Templer, D. I. (2004, February 20–22). The dire consequences of public denial of black-white differences in intelligence. Presented at the American Renaissance Conference, Herndon, VA.

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Templer, D. I., Tomeo, M. E., Arikawa, H., & Williams, R. (2003). Asian-black differences in aptitude and difficulty of chosen academic discipline. Personality and Individual Differences 35, 237–241.

Yu, L. M., Rinaldi, S. A., Templer, D. I., Colbert, L., Siscoe, V., & Van Patten, K. (1997). EPPP score as a function of clinical psychology graduate program. Psychological Science 8, 347–350.